Psychological factors related to choking under pressure


  • Takehiro Iwatsuki
  • Judy Van Raalte
  • Britton Brewer
  • Albert Petipas
  • Masanori Takahashi



psychology, reinvestment, self-focus, cross-cultural comparison


Tennis players who focus on their skill execution and self-regulation are likely to improve in training. On the other hand, focusing on performance too much (reinvestment) can result in “paralysis by analysis” and performance decrements. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reinvestment, self-regulation, and perceived choking under pressure among 180 collegiate male and female tennis players from NCAA Division I in the United States (78 players), and from League I in Japan (102 players ). Results indicated that a focus on skill execution via self-regulation was positively associated with conscious motor processing and negatively associated with perceived choking. This means that tennis players who consciously control their movement are less likely to perceive themselves as choking under pressure.


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How to Cite

Iwatsuki , T., Van Raalte, J., Brewer, B., Petipas, A., & Takahashi, M. (2016). Psychological factors related to choking under pressure. ITF Coaching & Sport Science Review, 24(68), 12–14.