Developing a performance management toolkit for Botswana tennis clubs
Keywords:performance management, tennis, Botswana
Performance management facilitates the attainment of goals in sport organisations. tennis clubs should implement performance management practices to maximise their profit, improve their services delivery and stakeholder satisfaction. In Botswana, tennis does not have a large followership or high participation rate. Therefore, Botswana tennis Clubs could use performance management initiatives to improve their organisational practices, participation rates and profitability. Thus, the aim of this paper was to develop and propose a performance management toolkit for Botswana tennis clubs. The paper relied on a review of the Balanced Scorecard, the Performance Prism, and components of performance management. Based on the review, a performance management toolkit for Botswana tennis clubs was developed. The toolkit comprises of planning for the external environment, planning for the internal environment, implementation, and performance measurement. The toolkit recognises the cyclic nature of the performance management process therefore, the feedback and feedforward obtained from performance measurement are used to inform future performance management plans. This paper can benefit Botswana sport managers and help them to implement performance management practices. This paper can also contribute towards sport management research on performance management in sports clubs.
Arnold, R., Fletcher, D. and Molyneux, L. (2012). Performance leadership and management in elite sport: recommendations, advice and suggestions from national performance directors, European Sport Management Quarterly, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 317-336. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2012.693115
Bayle, E. and Madella, A. (2002). Development of a taxonomy of performance for national sport organizations, European Journal of Sport Science, 2(2), 1-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390200072205
Bayle, E. & Robinson, L. (2007). A framework for understanding the performance of national governing bodies of sport, European Sport Management Quarterly, 7(3), 249-268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/16184740701511037
Bititci, U.S., Carrie, A.S. and McDevitt, L, (1997). Integrated performance measurement systems: a development guide, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 17(5), 522-534. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01443579710167230
Bititci, U., Cocca, P., & Ates, A. (2016). Impact of visual performance management systems on the performance management practices of organisations. International Journal of Production Research, 54(6), 1571-1593. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2015.1005770
Blakey, P. (2011). Sport marketing, Learning Matters, Exeter.
Botswana National Sports Council Handbook (2010). BNSC. Gaborone. Botswana.
Bulawa, P. (2011). Implementation of the performance management system in senior secondary schools in Botswana: the perspective of the senior management team. (Doctoral dissertation, James Cook University).
Byers, T., Slack, T., and Parent, M. (2012). Key concepts in sport management. Sage. London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473914599
Čingienė, V. (2019). Governance of sports in Lithuania: empirical findings towards challenging implications. In M. Winand and C. Anagnostopoulos (Eds), Research Handbook on Sport Governance (pp. 134-150). Edward Elgar. Cheltenham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781786434821.00016
Chelladurai, P., Szyszlo, M. and Haggerty, T. R. (1987). Systems-based dimensions of effectiveness-the case of national sport organizations. Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences-Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Sport. 12(2), 111-119.
Dias, I. R. R., and Rossi, G. B. (2017). How far is World Champion from World Class? Institutional effects on a Brazilian non-profit sports organization. Brazilian Business Review, 14(Special Ed), 24-44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15728/edicaoesp.2017.2
Ferreira, A., and Otley, D. (2009). The design and use of performance management systems: An extended framework for analysis. Management Accounting Research, 20(4), 263-282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mar.2009.07.003
Frisby, W. (1986). Measuring the organizational effectiveness of national sport governing bodies. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 11(2), 94-99.
Heere, B. (2010). A New Approach to Measure Perceived Brand Personality Associations Among Consumers. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 19(1).
Hudson, D. (2018). Quill Hermans’ role in the development of Botswana Alongside Seretse Khama and Quett Masire. Botswana Notes and Records. 50. 323- 326.
Hulme, A., McLean, S., Read, G. J. M., Dallat, C., Bedford, A., and Salmon, P. M. (2019). Sports organisations as complex systems: using Cognitive Work Analysis to identify the factors influencing performance in an elite Netball organisation. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 1, 56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2019.00056
Kaplan, R.S. and Norton, D.P. (1996). The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
Kasale, L. L., Winand, M., and Morrow, S. (2019). A stakeholder approach to performance management in Botswana National Sport Organisations. Managing Sport and Leisure, 24(4), 226-243. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2019.1612269
Kasale, L. L. Winand, M. and Robinson, L. (2018). Performance Management of National Sport Organisations: A holistic theoretical model, Sport Business Management: An International Journal, 8(5), 469-491. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/SBM-10-2017-0056
MacLean, J. (2016), ‘Performance Management’ in Hoye, R. and Parent, M.M. (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Sport Management, Sage Publications, London, pp.160 - 180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473957961.n10
Melnyk, S.A., Bititci, U., Platts, K., Tobias, J. and Andersen, B. (2014). Is performance measurement and management fit for the future? Management Accounting Research, 25(2), 173-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mar.2013.07.007
Mosware, R. B. (2011). An investigation of attitudes and challenges faced by teachers in the implementation of performance management system in secondary school in Botswana (Doctoral dissertation).
Neely, A., Adams, C. and Crowe, P. (2001), The performance prism in practice. Measuring Business Excellence, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 6-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13683040110385142
O’Boyle, I. and Bradbury, T. (2017), The new sport management environment. in Bradbury, T and O’Boyle, I (Eds.), Understanding Sport Management, Routledge, London, pp. 21-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315657554
O’Boyle, I. and Hassan, D. (2014). Performance management and measurement in national-level non-profit sport organisations, European Sport Management Quarterly, 14(3), 299-314. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2014.898677
Omondi-Ochieng, P. (2018). US table tennis association: a case study of financial performance using effectiveness indicators and efficiency ratios. Managerial Finance, 44(2), 189-206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/MF-10-2017-0393
Otley, D. (1999), Performance management: a framework for management control systems research, Management Accounting Research, 10(4), 363-382. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/mare.1999.0115
Parent, M. M., Naraine, M. L., and Hoye, R. (2018). A new era for governance structures and processes in Canadian national sport organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 32(6), 555-566. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2018-0037
Pavlov, A., Mura, M., Franco-Santos, M., and Bourne, M. (2017). Modelling the impact of performance management practices on firm performance: interaction with human resource management practices. Production Planning & Control, 28(5), 431-443. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09537287.2017.1302614
Perck, J., Van Hoecke, J., Westerbeek, H. and Breesch, D. (2016), Organisational change in local sport clubs: the case of Flemish gymnastics clubs, Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 6(2), 158-181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/SBM-01-2014-0002
Pluim, B.M,, Earland, J. & Pluim, N. E. (2014). The development of Healthy Tennis clubs in the Netherlands. British Journal of Sport Medicine. 48 898 - 904. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091567
Robinson, L. (2010), The Operating Environment of Voluntary Sport Organisations. In Robinson, L., and Palmer, D. (Eds.), Managing Voluntary Sport Organizations, Routledge, New York. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203881354
Solntsev, I., and Osokin, N. (2018). Designing a performance measurement framework for regional networks of national sports organizations: evidence from Russian football. Managing Sport and Leisure, 23(1-2). 7-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2018.1452628
Winand, M., Zintz, T., Bayle, E. and Robinson, L. (2010). Organizational performance of Olympic sport governing bodies: dealing with measurement and priorities, Managing Leisure, 15(4), 279-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13606719.2010.508672
Zhang, J. J. (2015). What to study? That is a question: A conscious thought analysis. Journal of Sport Management, 29(1), 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/JSM.2014-0163
Zülch, H., Palme, M., & Jost, S. P. (2020). Management quality of professional football clubs: the Football Management (FoMa) Q-Score 2018. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. 10(5), 567- 598. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/SBM-10-2019-0092
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Lobone Lloyd Kasale, Tapiwa Marobela-Masunga, Nonofo Othusitse, Moagi Mbise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.